Research and development as a hybrid system

  • Innovation system as a catalyst of innovations
    • Old: basic research, applied research, commercial applications.
    • New: university, enterprise and government interaction as a source of innovation (triple helix).
  • Specialisation into particular industries implies that industries differ from one another. Usually there is no unified national innovation system. The significance of an innovation system is difficult to verify.
  • Problems with commercialisation: (Canada, Finland, Korea, New-Zealand)
  • Problems with innovation production: (Italy, Norway, Mexico Portugal).
  • If universities take a position in developing innovations, students and basic research might suffer.
  • The wealth of industrialized countries is both antecedent and consequence of innovations.


Cleantech as a hybrid industry

  • The combination of public policy goals and for-profit activity. Environmental sustainability as source of business opportunities rather than as a counterforce.
  • Interest of capital investors in new technologies. The concern of citizens of the degradation of environment.
  • Changing environmental problems into business opportunities.
  • ”doing well by doing good”.
  • Conceptual battle and boundary concepts in the background: ”biotech”, ”infotech”, “cleantech”.
  • Continuous problem of demarcation: Is low-emission diesel engine part of cleantech?


Hybrid governance in health care

  • Balancing between access to service, service quality and cost containment.
  • Financing, production and management combines public and private features.
  • The health expenditures (%GDP) and the coverage varies in OECD countries
  • Cost containment is not equally important to all stakeholders
  • How to evaluate and measure the efficiency and inefficiency of hybrid governance? Compared to what? Public, private, and other feasible arrangements.