Research and development as a hybrid system
- Innovation system as a catalyst of innovations
- Old: basic research, applied research, commercial applications.
- New: university, enterprise and government interaction as a source of innovation (triple helix).
- Specialisation into particular industries implies that industries differ from one another. Usually there is no unified national innovation system. The significance of an innovation system is difficult to verify.
- Problems with commercialisation: (Canada, Finland, Korea, New-Zealand)
- Problems with innovation production: (Italy, Norway, Mexico Portugal).
- If universities take a position in developing innovations, students and basic research might suffer.
- The wealth of industrialized countries is both antecedent and consequence of innovations.
Cleantech as a hybrid industry
- The combination of public policy goals and for-profit activity. Environmental sustainability as source of business opportunities rather than as a counterforce.
- Interest of capital investors in new technologies. The concern of citizens of the degradation of environment.
- Changing environmental problems into business opportunities.
- ”doing well by doing good”.
- Conceptual battle and boundary concepts in the background: ”biotech”, ”infotech”, “cleantech”.
- Continuous problem of demarcation: Is low-emission diesel engine part of cleantech?
Hybrid governance in health care
- Balancing between access to service, service quality and cost containment.
- Financing, production and management combines public and private features.
- The health expenditures (%GDP) and the coverage varies in OECD countries
- Cost containment is not equally important to all stakeholders
- How to evaluate and measure the efficiency and inefficiency of hybrid governance? Compared to what? Public, private, and other feasible arrangements.